German manufacturer OHB-System has signed a €445m (£400m) contract to begin construction of a satellite network to monitor carbon dioxide.

德國制造商OHB-System公司簽署了一份4.45億歐元(4億英鎊)的合同,開始建造一個監測二氧化碳的衛星網絡。

The CO2M constellation will consist in the first instance of two spacecraft, but there is an option for a third.

CO2M衛星網絡將首先由兩個航天器組成,但也有可能是三個。

The platforms will track the greenhouse gas across the globe, helping nations assess the scale of their emissions.

這個衛星網絡將跟蹤全球的溫室氣體,幫助各國評估其排放規模。

Under the Paris climate accord, countries must compile CO2 inventories. CO2M will provide supporting data.

根據巴黎氣候協議,各國必須編制二氧化碳排放清單。CO2M將為各國提供支持數據。

The aim is to launch the OHB spacecraft in 2025 so they can inform the international stocktake that will report in 2028.

首個目標是在2025年發射OHB的航天器,以便它們能夠為2028年報告的國際清查提供信息。

CO2M falls under the European unx''s Copernicus Earth observation programme. This flies a series of satellite sensors called Sentinels, which monitor everything from damage wrought by earthquakes to the health of staple food crops.

CO2M屬于歐盟的哥白尼地球觀測項目。該方案發射一系列被稱為 "哨兵 "的衛星傳感器,這些傳感器監測由地震造成的損害到主要糧食作物的健康狀況等各種情況。

When the CO2M spacecraft go into orbit, they too will assume the Sentinel moniker.

當CO2M航天器進入軌道后,它們也將采用哨兵的名稱。

No-one draws a distinction between the importance of the different Sentinels but given the urgency of the climate crisis, "CO2M will be the beacon of Copernicus, its most visible mission", Marco Fuchs, the CEO of OHB-System, told BBC News.

沒有人對不同哨兵的重要程度進行排名,但考慮到氣候危機的緊迫性,"CO2M將成為哥白尼的燈塔,是其最引人注目的任務",OHB-System公司的CEO Marco Fuchs告訴BBC新聞。

His company''s contract is with the European Space Agency (Esa), which acts as the technical and procurement agent for the EU on Copernicus.

他的公司與歐洲航天局(Esa)簽訂的合同,后者是歐盟在哥白尼項目中的技術支持和采購代理。


The satellites will carry a CO2 instrument, obviously, but a range of secondary sensors also to help with the signal''s retri and to differentiate the human-produced sources of the gas from those emitted by natural processes.

顯而易見的,衛星將攜帶二氧化碳探測儀器,但也將攜帶一系列輔助傳感器,以幫助信號的檢索,并區分氣體的來源是人類生產或者自然過程排放。

Franco-Italian manufacturer Thales Alenia Space has been engaged as a key sub-contractor. Its French division will deliver a combined carbon dioxide and nitrogen dioxide spectrometer that operates in near- and shortwave-infrared bands.

法國-意大利制造商泰雷茲阿萊尼亞空間公司已被聘為關鍵的分包商。其法國分部將提供一個在近紅外和短波紅外波段運行的二氧化碳和二氧化氮組合光譜儀。

TAS''s UK arm will build a multi-angle polarimeter; and the Belgian company OIP Sensors will make a cloud imager.

TAS的英國分公司將制造一臺多角度偏振計;比利時的OIP傳感器公司將制造一臺云成像儀。


There are currently six Sentinel satellite systems either already in orbit, or soon to be in orbit. CO2M is part of an expansion that would see the Copernicus space component double in size.

目前有6個 "哨兵 "衛星已經在軌,或者即將在軌。CO2M是擴展的一部分,哥白尼項目空間部分的規模將擴大一倍。

How soon this advance in capability can be achieved is uncertain, however.

不過,這種規模的提升多久能夠實現還尚不確定。

The leaders of the EU''s 27 member states recently agreed a downgrading of the proposed Copernicus budget in the next financial period (2021-2027) from €5.8bn to €4.8bn.

歐盟27個成員國的領導人最近同意將下一個財政期(2021-2027年)的哥白尼項目擬議預算從58億歐元下調至48億歐元。

If this budget envelope is implemented, it will impact the roll-out of the expansion Sentinels.

如果這個預算計劃得到落實,將影響到擴容哨兵的推出。

Indeed, the fact that OHB is only being asked to build two spacecraft for the moment - and not all three - is a reflection of the current financial realities.

事實上,目前只要求OHB建造兩個航天器--而不是所有三個航天器--是當前財政現實的反映。



But even with these extra sources of finance, there will be a shortfall in the funding needed to implement the full Copernicus expansion in a timely fashion.

但即使有了這些額外的資金來源,要想及時實施哥白尼的全面擴張,所需的資金也會出現缺口。



The other five missions in the planned expansion are:

計劃擴展中的其他五個任務是:


LSTM: A thermal infrared sensor to measure land-surface temperature. Again, useful in agriculture and to predict drought. Airbus, Spain.

LSTM:一個測量陸地表面溫度的熱紅外傳感器。同樣,對農業和預測干旱有用。西班牙空客公司。


ROSE-L: An L-band radar which can also observe ice but many other targets as well, including forests and soils. TAS, Italy.

ROSE-L:一種L波段雷達,可以測量地球上的冰原高度--監測氣候變化的重要工具。L波段雷達,不僅能觀測冰,還能觀測其他目標,包括森林和土壤。TAS,意大利。

CIMR: A microwave radiometer to measure sea-surface temperature and salinity, and sea-ice concentration. TAS, Italy.

CIMR:微波輻射計,用于測量海面溫度和鹽度以及海冰濃度。TAS,意大利。

The existing Sentinel satellite systems in the EU''s Copernicus programme are:

歐盟 "哥白尼 "方案中現有的 "哨兵 "衛星系統有:

Sentinel-1: Radar satellite that can see the Earth''s surface in all weathers

哨兵-1號:雷達衛星,可以在任何天氣下看到地球表面。

Sentinel-2: Multi-wavelength detectors to study principally land changes

哨兵-2號:主要研究土地變化的多波長探測器

Sentinel-3: Multiple sensors tuned to observe ocean properties and behaviour

哨兵-3號:調整多個傳感器以觀察海洋特性和行為。

Sentinel-4: Future high-orbiting sensor to measure atmospheric gases

哨兵-4號:未來測量大氣氣體的高軌傳感器

Sentinel-5: Low-orbiting atmospheric sensor to help monitor air quality

哨兵-5號:有助于監測空氣質量的低軌大氣傳感器