Seoul v the rest

首爾 VS 其余地區

JINJU

晉州

The government is rethinking its efforts to spread the wealth

政府正在重新考慮如何分配財富



The buildings are the beginnings of Jinju’s “innovation city”, one of 12 such projects dotted around South Korea that are meant to reduce the concentration of politics, wealth and culture in the capital, Seoul. Jinju is supposed to become a hub for biotech and aerospace, creating tens of thousands of jobs in a region with comparatively little industrial heritage and thus encouraging internal migration.

首爾是國家政治、財富和文化的中心,韓國力圖通過各地的十二個項目分散首都功能。晉州的“創新城市”就是其中之一,這些建筑就是該項目的初期工程。晉州將被打造成生物科技和航空航天中心,這個相對缺乏工業基礎的地區將提供成千上萬的工作機會,從而促進國內人口的遷移。

Seoul, the neighbouring city of Incheon and the surrounding province of Gyeonggi are home to half of South Korea’s 52m people and produce half of its wealth. Vibrant and full of opportunity, the capital region is also congested, expensive and stressful to live in. The innovation cities, conceived in the mid-2000s and modelled on earlier plans for “balanced development”, are one of a long series of policies aiming to help less buoyant places advance.

首爾、毗鄰首爾的仁川市以及環繞首爾的京畿道容納了韓國5200萬總人口中的半數,并創造了一半的國家財富。首都圈地區充滿了活力與機遇,但也是個交通擁堵、開銷高昂、壓力十足的地方。創新城市構想于2005年,脫胎自此前的“平衡發展計劃”,是為了幫助落后地區得以發展的系列政策之一。


But for all the rapidity of its development, Sejong is a far cry from Seoul. Yoo Kyung-weon, a young official from the capital, moved to Sejong for her job but says a lot of her colleagues did not. “It’s cheaper than Seoul and I can cycle to work in a few minutes, which is nice,” she says. “But there’s nothing to do here, and every time I go out I worry about bumping into someone I work with.” She frequently spends her weekends back in Seoul.

盡管發展很快,但世宗市與首爾仍差距甚遠。一名年輕的首都公務員劉經元因為工作搬到了世宗市,但她說很多同事并沒有搬過來?!斑@里比首爾開銷少,而且我騎車去上班只需要幾分鐘,這些都很不錯?!彼f道?!暗窃谶@里沒什么可做的,每次出門我都擔心碰到同事?!彼3T谑谞柖冗^周末。

Urban planners doubt that new cities will dent the capital’s supremacy. “Over the past 20 years, the economic disparity between Seoul and elsewhere has actually increased, despite all of these policies,” says Kang Myoung-gu of Seoul University. “People used to move to Seoul because they had to if they wanted to find work,” he says. “Now they come or stay because they want to. They like urban amenities, restaurants, green spaces, texture. You’re not going to convince anyone to move across the country if you can’t provide that.” He thinks the solution to Seoul’s problems is local. “We need to expand infrastructure and make public space better for everyone.”

城市規劃人員認為新建的城市會削弱首都優勢?!霸谶^去二十年,盡管出臺了這些政策,首爾和其余地區的經濟差距實際上仍有所拉大?!笔谞柎髮W的姜明區這樣說道?!耙郧?,人們搬到首爾是因為如果想要找到工作就不得不這么做?!彼f道,“但現在,人們來到首爾、居住在首爾是因為他們想這么做。他們喜歡這里的設施、餐廳、綠化環境和城市氛圍。如果缺乏這些條件,你就無法說服別人搬到另一個城市?!彼J為解決首爾問題要采取本土方案?!拔覀円獢U展基礎設施建設,并為人們打造更好的公共空間?!?

Back in Jinju, a young mother who used to live in the older part of town says she enjoys life closer to schools and green spaces. Rather than enticing Seoulites, innovation cities seem to attract people from the surrounding areas. Villages and towns in poorer regions around innovation cities have higher-than-usual vacancy rates, which suggests the cities may simply be sapping economic vitality in their hinterland. As South Korea’s population declines, such trends will accelerate.

說回晉州,一位以前居住在老城鎮的年輕媽媽說,她很喜歡離學校和綠化環境更近的生活。與其說吸引了居住在首爾的人們,創新城市吸引的似乎是附近地區的人們。創新城市附近貧困地區的村鎮有了高于往常的空置率,這說明創新城市可能只是削弱了偏遠地區的經濟活力。隨著韓國人口的下降,這樣的趨勢將會愈演愈烈。

As a result, the government has begun to emphasise urban regeneration over building towns from scratch. Residents have a say in what they feel needs doing to improve their environment. In Jochiwon, a town half an hour from the government complex in Sejong, locals have planted a public garden around the old train station, installed a co-working space and convinced the city to pedestrianize some nearby streets.

結果,政府開始重視城市復興,而不是從頭來新建城市。對于做些什么來改善居住環境這一問題,居民們有發言權。在距離世宗市政府辦公樓半小時車程的鳥致院,當地居民在老火車站周圍種了一個公共花園,設置了一個聯合辦公區域,并說服市政府將附近的一些街道設為步行區。

Planners such as Mr Kang dismiss this approach as “planting flowers and painting walls”, but residents consider the place much improved from a few years ago. “The idea is to improve quality of life while preserving the fabric of a place,” says Lee Ji-hye of the Ministry of Land, which is now located in Sejong.

姜先生這樣的規劃人員看不上這樣的方法,認為這只是“種種花、刷刷墻”,但居民們認為這里的環境比起幾年前改善了很多?!拔覀兊南敕ㄊ潜A舫鞘薪Y構的同時提升生活質量?!表n國國土資源部的李智慧這樣說道?,F在該政府部門也搬遷到了世宗市。