Douglas C. Miller
, I have been reading history for over 50 years
Most of the other answers have significant parts of the full answer as to why Japan attacked Pearl Harbor, but none put the whole thing together. So let me try:

關于日本為何要偷襲珍珠港,其他人的答案里都給出了部分的重要原因,但并沒有人能夠把所有方面都囊括進來。所以,我來試著回答一下這個問題:




Thus Japan fell into a somewhat fascist-like state in which the military dominated the government, and increasingly it limited the press, civil rights, and other liberties in the name of patriotism. The Constitution required that the Army Minister be a serving officer, ditto the Navy Minister, and the resignation of either of these figures would bring down the Cabinet and force the Emperor to find a new Prime Minister to reorganize the government. Thus the military held ultimate power over the civilian government, no matter who had a majority in the Diet (Parliament).

因此,日本在某種程度上變成了類似法西斯主義的國家,他們的軍隊控制著政府,并以愛國主義的名義加強限制新聞、公民權利和其它自由。根據日本憲法規定,陸軍大臣必須是在職軍官,海軍大臣亦是如此,這兩個人物的辭職將導致內閣下臺,迫使天皇尋找新的首相來重組政府。因此,無論誰在國會(議會)中占多數席位,軍方都對文官政府擁有最高權力。


In 1937 the Japanese military again went “off the reservation” and against orders began a new aggression against China. The US, by now under the leadership of FDR, was strongly against this, and not only remonstrated with the Japanese but began to consider the Japanese as potentially hostile. This fit with FDR’s view of Hitler and Mussolini, and he regarded the Japanese as of the same ilk. He began to reverse the American policy of not reinforcing and modernizing the military installations we had in the Philippines, and on Wake Island and Midway, although the US was limited by treaties which pledged not to fortify those places. (The Japanese were pledged not to fortify the islands they had taken from the Germans after WW I under League of Nations mandates, but they cheated, just as they ended up cheating on the naval treaties).

1937年,日本軍隊違反了“保留地”原則,并對中國發動了新的侵略。當時,在羅斯福領導下的美國對此表達了強烈的反對,不僅對日本提出抗議,而且開始認定日本人存在潛在的敵意。日本的這種行為與羅斯福對希特勒和墨索里尼的看法吻合,他認為,日本人與希特勒和墨索里尼一樣。盡管受到條約的限制,美國承諾不會對菲律賓、威克島和中途島的軍事設施進行增強和現代化,但是羅斯福開始轉變這一政策了。(第一次世界大戰后,日本根據國際聯盟的授權,從德國人的手中奪取了一些島嶼,并承諾不對這些島嶼進行加固,但他們欺騙了世界,正如他們在海軍條約上欺騙世界一樣。)

III) The Chinese war goes badly: From 1937 the war in China came to resemble, in modern terms, the US experience in Vietnam. The Japanese never lost a battle, they took territory, but they could not “win”; Chiang and Mao retreated but never surrendered, and the Japanese were slowly bleeding men and money and oil reserves and metal for planes and tanks, etc. As they became more obviously brutal to the rest of the world, the US obxtions grew, until in the end FDR moved the Pacific fleet to Hawaii as a gesture of deterrence, reinstated MacArthur as an active US officer and instructed him to build a modern Filipino military, and otherwise took actions to protect US trade routes and US facilities such as at Wake and Midway. The Japanese viewed these as threatening gestures. Ultimately, as relations deteriorated further, FDR put in place an embargo on materials that would support the Japanese war, including steel, aluminum, other metals and ores, and, most importantly, petroleum. He also got the Dutch, who by now were a government in exile in Britain with their country occupied by Hitler, to also embargo their oil. The Japanese faced a crisis: they could not maintain their campaigns in China without oil and metals, and they had no resources sufficient to themselves. They resolved, after a lot of discussion, to go take the Dutch islands, and to get Malaya from the British for its tin and its rubber, two other essential commodities. They were inhibited from going north into Siberia by a punishing small campaign they had against USSR troops led by Zhukhov, who badly defeated the Kwangtung Army forces.

三、中國的戰局非常糟糕:從1937年開始,中國的戰爭局勢就像美國在越南的經歷一模一樣。日本人沒有輸過一仗,他們占領了中國的領土,但也沒有徹底獲勝;蔣介石和毛都撤退了,但都沒有投降。而與此同時,日本人正在慢慢地流血,同時在損失的,還有金錢、石油儲備、飛機和坦克的金屬儲備等等。當日本對世界其他國家表現出明顯的野蠻和殘暴時,美國對它的反對態度開始變強。最終,羅斯福去視察夏威夷太平洋艦隊來展示美國的威懾姿態,重新啟用麥克阿瑟為美國軍官,并囑咐他建立一個現代菲律賓軍隊,或者采取行動保護我們的貿易航線,以及美國在威克島和中途島的軍事設施。
日本人認為美國的這些行為是一種威脅姿態。最終,隨著兩國關系進一步惡化,羅斯福對支持日本戰爭的物資進行了禁運,包括鋼鐵、鋁、其他金屬和礦石,以及最重要的石油。與此同時,羅斯福還要求荷蘭(在英國的流亡政府,國家已經被希特勒占領)也對日本進行石油禁運。這時,日本人面臨了一場危機:他們沒有足夠的石油和金屬支持自己在中國繼續作戰,甚至沒有足夠的資源來維持軍隊。經過一番討論,他們決定占領荷屬印度尼西亞群島,并從馬來西亞那里獲得來自英國的錫和橡膠,這是日本軍隊的另外兩種必需品。在一場小規模的懲罰性戰役中,朱霍夫率領的蘇聯軍隊打敗了日本關東軍,于是,日本失去了北上西伯利亞的機會。

IV) Pearl Harbor: So, having resolved to take what they needed in the western Pacific, they examined the risks. The Philippines lie right on the seaways between Malay, Indochina, Indonesia, and Japan; a US fleet and US airforce in the Philippines could interdict Japanese shipping along those routes. So any attack had to include taking the Philippines (or so they reasoned). Yamamoto, by now in command of the IJN’s main fleet, reasoned that they would lose a war to the US, unless they could knock out the Pacific fleet and then convince the US to sign a peace treaty. He therefore developed the Pearl Harbor attack plan and, after a lot of negotations, sold it to the Imperial Army leaders who by now openly ran the government (Tojo was Prime Minister) and, not incidentally, to Hirohito. So the ultimate reasons for the attack on Pearl was not just oil, or just colonialism, but all of what I have laid out here.

四、珍珠港:因此,他們決定了在西太平洋采取的軍事行動,并對其風險進行了評估。菲律賓正好位于馬來西亞、中南半島、印度尼西亞和日本之間的海上航道上,然而,駐扎在菲律賓的美國艦隊和空軍可以攔截這些航線上的日本船只。因此,日本在發動任何進攻之前,都必須要占領菲律賓(至少他們是這么想的)。作為日本艦隊的指揮官,山本五十六認為,除非他們能擊潰太平洋艦隊,然后說服美國簽署和平條約,否則他們最終會在戰爭里輸給美國。因此,他制定了襲擊珍珠港的計劃,并在經過多次談判后,把計劃呈交了帝國軍隊的領導人,這些領導人現在公開把持了政府(東條英機是當時的首相)。當然,偷襲計劃也呈送給了了裕仁天皇。所以,日本選擇偷襲珍珠港的最終原因不只是石油或者是殖民主義,而是我在這里列出的所有原因。